Chinese information manipulation against Taiwan


K.1 IORG confirms, with publicly verifiable scientific methods, that the CCP is engaged in information manipulation against Taiwan

K.2 More than false information, Chinese information manipulation against Taiwan is becoming more diverse and sophisticated

K.3 IORG confirms “Weibo to Facebook” a route through which Chinese manipulated information spreads to Taiwan

Information manipulation collaborators


K.4 Among information manipulation collaborators, “local collaborators” are critical in spreading Chinese information manipulation in Taiwan

K.5 Collaborator behavior is diverse and can be classified into 3 types: source, content, and process of inference

K.6 Lack of verification by news media, collaborator behavior by celebrities, clustered posting by Facebook pages, together promote the spread of of manipulated information

K.7 Fact-checking may reduce spread of manipulated information on public social media platforms, effectiveness in closed groups is limited

Chinese interpersonal infiltration and economic influence operations against Taiwan


K.8 Chinese government is actively infiltrating various interpersonal networks in Taiwan, “Straits Forum” can be viewed as the annual performance review of its infiltration operations against Taiwan

K.9 Channels of Chinese infiltration are diverse and overlapping, older, those residing in China, and the economically vulnerable are more susceptible; “two-tier structure” in Taiwanese grassroots provides basis of self-persuasion when organizers accept Chinese benefits

K.10 Chinese government encourages political behavioral change through cultural calling and economic incentive

K.11 To gain indirect influence to Taiwan’s politics through target groups, Chinese government must ensures the economic incentives provided are irreplaceable

Defending Democracy


K.12 Democracy and unity, not witch-hunting nor ostracizing, are the purposes of studying Chinese influence operations

K.13 Strengthening information literacy of citizens is the fundamental, long-term effective strategy in defending against information manipulation

K.14 Open data and intersectional collaboration can create concrete actions of civic participation in defending democracy


IORG is a Taiwan-based multidisciplinary research group countering authoritarian expansion with public information, scientific methodologies, and grassroots organization.

In completing its research reports, IORG is immensely grateful to the continued support of its research advisors, including Dr. Ming-Hung Wang, Assistant Professor at the Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, Feng-Chia University, and other scholars, professional workers, and researchers offering data, council, or assistance and wish to remain anonymous.

Authors: Josh Wang, Chihhao Yu, Hsiaochiang Hsu, Jasmine Lee, Shao-Hong Lin, Urda Wan-Ling Yen, Wesley Chia-Wei Lin, Baliyoho Cheng, Siao-Hai Song, Wen-Yi Wang.

Every member of IORG has made important contributions towards the completion of IORG’s research reports.