Overall Conclusions

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K.1 IORG 以可公開驗證的資料科學方法,證實中共持續發起及參與傳播資訊操弄,製造台灣資訊環境亂象

K.2 COVID-19 疫苗、公投 4 案、國際關係為 2021 資訊操弄重點主題

K.3 每逢選舉,就有「做票」論述,可能有損選舉制度的公眾信任,弱化民主

K.4 特定資訊操弄論述來自台灣本土,防衛民主,應強化社會信任,健全資訊環境、推動資訊判讀教育

COVID-19 Vaccines

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K.5 疫苗論述變化:從「台灣缺疫苗」到「國產疫苗有問題」,到「疫苗有問題」,再到「疫苗沒有用」,可能降低民眾接種意願

K.6 疫苗論述特徵:隨時事改變,親切問候、新聞連結、引用權威發言、引起既有情緒、與讀者拉近距離,提高可信度

K.7 疫苗熱度:台灣 AZ 最高、中國 BNT 最高;中共「最關心」高端

2021 Referendums in Taiwan

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K.8 公投前,「萊豬」最多資訊操弄,引起食安恐慌、反政府、反美情緒

K.9 公投前,中共最關心「萊豬」,論述重心並非議題,而是協力傳播國民黨宣傳、批評民進黨「網軍」、「濫權」

K.10 公投後,議題論述近乎消失,可疑論述質疑選舉正當性、政府介入宣傳,並有中共協力傳播

International Relations

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K.11 中共官媒協力傳播日本舉辦東奧不力錯誤訊息

K.12 美國撤軍阿富汗「疑美論」3 主題:「拋棄論」熱度最高,台灣發起、中共協力,台媒共媒交互引用

K.13 台灣申請加入 CPTPP:「倉促申請」熱度最高,國民黨發起,中共協力

Taiwan Information Environment Ecology

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K.14 台灣資訊環境多元、熱絡,不只是「假」,有問題的資訊來源、推論過程、政治宣傳、外國干預、訴諸恐懼、不信任,妨礙「講道理」的公共討論

K.15 Facebook 華語粉專、台灣新聞生態連動,LINE 自成一格

K.16 中共、微博內容透過 Facebook 華語粉專傳入台灣

K.17 內容農場活得很好,持續獲得特定 Facebook 匿名粉專「集團」群聚分享傳播

CCP Information Manipulation Against Taiwan

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K.18 中共批台「謀獨」,宣傳疫苗、操弄萊豬,引導台灣讀者反美、反日、反政府

K.19 中共「連動」台灣資訊空間,引用旺中、聯合、台灣名人、網友,持續對台擴大「同溫層」

K.20 中共對台論述分工:官方政治宣傳、官媒資訊操弄

Defending Democracy

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K.21 台灣民眾對特定公共議題的關心增加,可能有助減少中共資訊傳入台灣

K.22 加強「資訊判讀力」,是反制資訊操弄根本且長期有效的方法

K.23 以科學研究面對資訊操弄,以開放、課責、協作建立信任、健全資訊環境、強化民主

Resources

Chinese Information Manipulation Against Taiwan

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K.1 IORG confirms, with publicly verifiable scientific methods, that the CCP is engaged in information manipulation against Taiwan

K.2 More than false information, Chinese information manipulation against Taiwan is becoming more diverse and sophisticated

K.3 IORG confirms “Weibo to Facebook” a route through which Chinese manipulated information spreads to Taiwan

Information Manipulation Collaborators

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K.4 Among information manipulation collaborators, “local collaborators” are critical in spreading Chinese information manipulation in Taiwan

K.5 Collaborator behavior is diverse and can be classified into 3 types: source, content, and process of inference

K.6 Lack of verification by news media, collaborator behavior by celebrities, clustered posting by Facebook pages, together promote the spread of of manipulated information

K.7 Fact-checking may reduce spread of manipulated information on public social media platforms, effectiveness in closed groups is limited

Chinese Interpersonal Infiltration and Economic Influence Operations Against Taiwan

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K.8 Chinese government is actively infiltrating various interpersonal networks in Taiwan, “Straits Forum” can be viewed as the annual performance review of its infiltration operations against Taiwan

K.9 Channels of Chinese infiltration are diverse and overlapping, older, those residing in China, and the economically vulnerable are more susceptible; “two-tier structure” in Taiwanese grassroots provides basis of self-persuasion when organizers accept Chinese benefits

K.10 Chinese government encourages political behavioral change through cultural calling and economic incentive

K.11 To gain indirect influence to Taiwan’s politics through target groups, Chinese government must ensures the economic incentives provided are irreplaceable

Defending Democracy

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K.12 Democracy and unity, not witch-hunting nor ostracizing, are the purposes of studying Chinese influence operations

K.13 Strengthening information literacy of citizens is the fundamental, long-term effective strategy in defending against information manipulation

K.14 Open data and intersectional collaboration can create concrete actions of civic participation in defending democracy

Directory

IORG is a multidisciplinary civilian research organization working to safeguard Taiwan’s information environment against authoritarian expansion.

In completing its research reports, IORG is immensely grateful to the continued support of its research advisors, including Dr. Ming-Hung Wang, Assistant Professor at the Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, Feng-Chia University, and other scholars, professional workers, and researchers offering data, council, or assistance and wish to remain anonymous.

Authors: Josh Wang, Chihhao Yu, Hsiaochiang Hsu, Jasmine Lee, Shao-Hong Lin, Wen-Yi Wang, Wesley Chia-Wei Lin, Urda Wan-Ling Yen, Baliyoho Cheng, Siao-Hai Song.

Every member of IORG has made important contributions towards the completion of IORG’s research reports.